We found that dependability and credibility were reasonably well reported, albeit poorly evolved in relation to critical aspects of qualitative social science such as methodology and triangulation, including reflexivity. The Hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha) is an iconic flagship species and geographical indication product of Bangladesh. We noted serious gaps in the reporting of the methodological details in the reviewed papers. Focus group discussions are becoming an increasingly popular methodology in primary healthcare research. When conducting a focus group: 1. Focus group dis-cussion is a technique where a researcher assembles a group of indi-viduals to discuss a specific topic, aiming to draw from the complex personal experiences, beliefs, perceptions and attitudes of the par-ticipants through a moderated interaction (Cornwall & Jewkes, 1995; 3. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc. Leech, N. L., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. In contrast, large vessels (>60 ft) targeting albacore are more specialized now than previously observed, even as participation in multiple fisheries has become increasingly common for this size class. A�Ϳ��� @ �E����c 3. (2016). Focus groups are facilitated group discussions. 1–6). Four main themes emerged from the review: understanding of people's perspectives regarding conservation (32%), followed by the assessment of conservation and livelihoods practices (21%), examination of challenges and impacts of resource management interventions (19%) and documenting the value of indigenous knowledge systems (16%). The study, therefore, formulates Socio-thematic Analysis (StA) as a new technique of data analysis which enables social issue researchers to rationalise the sociality of the people living with the problem. The methodology of Focus Groups 105 tidpants. Focus Groups Focus groups are essentially a “series of discussions to obtain perceptions on a defined area of interest” (Krueger and Casey, 2009: 2). The majority of the bycatch were found to be highly susceptible to fishing, with 17 bycatch species found to be in the high-risk category. (2003) used Nominal Group Technique (a more structured and narrow version of focus-group methodology) to explore student experiences of fieldwork. The versatility and ease of use of the technique is, where the bolded number is the median average number, Consequently, researchers must be clear on where it is appropriate, and recruited as well as the relationship between sampling and repre, resource exploitation. KEY WORDS: Focus-group methodology, interviews, students, research methods, student experience Introduction The authors use examples, drawn from their own focus groups research experience, and provide exercises for further study. Focus Group Interviewing --- Richard Krueger 4 Beginning the Focus Group Discussion The first few moments in focus group discussion are critical. This is appropriate for interpreting data in transformational research. The number of participants per focus, In the reviewed studies, two types of focus group discussion, with limited infrastructure for online access. Hence the need to evaluate such perceptions, tion decision making (Redpath et al., 2004). Kamberelis, G., & Dimitriadis, G. (2005). We performed a PSA to evaluate the relative risk to bycatch stocks in gillnet fishing (gillnet shares > 95 % of Hilsa catch) along with target stock, Hilsa. are aware of and beginning to use technology to enhance their meetings, there has been very little research exploring electronic focus groups. conduct since all the target participants and the r, an important consideration for researchers with resour, meeting them in their usual places of work or r. and biases, including strategic group biases (e.g. Pretest questions to ensure they are clear and logical 3. In Y. S. Denzin, Ritchie, J., & Spencer, L. (1994). Knowledge and use, Heary, C. M., & Hennessy, E. (2002). This is due to many constraints faced in the Department of Higher Education. The social sciences are one important means through which researchers and practitioners can attain that better understanding. We then discuss in detail, provided guidelines to improve the standard of reporting and. (1998). In addition, the increasing. Challenges associated with focus groups are most often attributed to two main factors: the facilitator and the basic nature of group discussions … Using focus groups for evaluation 2. The number of participants per focus group (where reported) ranged from 3 to 21 participants with a median of 10 participants. The facilitator is the person guiding the discussion. Synthesized Member Checking addresses the co-constructed nature of knowledge by providing participants with the opportunity to engage with, and add to, interview and interpreted data, several months after their semi-structured interview. Freitas, H., Oliveira, M., Jenkins, M., & Popjoy, O. three small groups, each having their own independent discussion. Focus Group Interviewing --- Richard Krueger 4 Beginning the Focus Group Discussion The first few moments in focus group discussion are critical. Information about. This paper introduces focus group methodology, gives advice on group composition, running the groups, and analysing the results. which can be useful in some instances (Krippendorff, 2012). Data is collected through a semi-structured group interview process. University of Cambridge and University of Exeter, School of Biological Sciences, University, Conservation Science Group, Department of, which involves the generation of numerous category codes, = 144) used focus group discussions alongside other methods, Change in the number of published studies in, Beware of biases affecting group discussions: Unlike interviews or, International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management, In the field: An introduction to field research, Interviewing: Strategy, techniques, and tactics. (1994). This is because the thrust of PAR and TP are essential to transform people and their predicaments by making them co-researchers where they are able to share and construct knowledge as a solution to their problems. Experiences in research exploration have revealed how best to respond to social issues in education research, most especially that bothers on social relationships and differences, among others. spiritual, cultural, economic and ethical) knowledge sources and (b) developing durable knowledge generation and curation platforms to co-ordinate long-term research efforts. During a focus group, a group of individuals—usually 6-12 people—is brought together in a room to engage in a guided discussion … The literature also reiterated the place of positivism/post-positivism paradigm (quantitative approach) in interrogating these social issues. (pp. Co-workers and friends are more comfortable in voicing views in each other’s company than on their own with the researcher. Irvine, & White, 2010). T.O.N. <> All content in this area was uploaded by Tobias Nyumba on Jan 11, 2018, Evolution © 2018 British Ecological Society. Focus Group Methodology is an introductory text which leads readers through the entire process of designing a focus group study, from conducting interviews and analyzing data to presenting the findings. Focus groups are a data collection method. ]WY:Ű�4��5��y��I�/����1+�Z����v`L��2^�9�7� 7�y]0� $fR:/}ޏV�.9�tP��&�I:S��o��'����z�&��%!��/ҙK���'��W+!0\�Z��3�XTEK���ma��.�Y�Ԑbmū ��!��Z�=�x����?|�@0�d�,YVd�M:3ə�֛s��U�'�v��~`��K�� 8��3��/S`a=�!%���LOO���C�*��. Our analysis indicates that recent social-ecological changes have had heterogenous impacts upon the livelihood strategies favoured by different segments of regional fishing fleets. Marine fisheries around the globe are increasingly exposed to external drivers of social and ecological change. The participants are sampled from the study population. (FT100100413) programs and funded by the Australian Government. A focus group lasting more than 90 minutes probably includes too many questions or topics for discussion. disclosure of data and information (Kamberelis & Dimitriadis, 2005). We then discuss in detail the empirical applications of this technique in conservation based on a structured literature review (using Scopus). The screening process resulted in 170 articles, the majority of which (67%, n = 114,) were published between 2011 and 2017. The questions and the manner in which the focus group is facilitated will vary based on the type of participants. involved, researchers are faced with uncertain and unpredictable pat, search subjects well before setting out to use f, We noted that none of the studies mentioned the extent o, project (see recommendations on facilitator, Our review indicates that the researchers often set out to explore, dicate that restricting participants to the topic of researcher’s interest, constraints creativity and encourages con, this constraint when planning and framing the group discussion ques, tions. However, the baseline information of our current study could assist the fishery managers to formulate a better management plan for the sustainability of Hilsa and the bycatch stocks. records and discussion group analysis. Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology. Guidelines for setting up and designing focus-group studies are outlined, ethical issues are highlighted, the purpose of a pilot study is reviewed, and common focus-group analysis and reporting styles are outlined. The focus group, Harisha, R. P., & Padmavathy, S. (2013). Preparing for focus group discussion 8. In a brief time the moderator must create a thoughtful, permissive atmosphere, provide ground rules, and set the tone of the discussion. Focus group discussions were used in 65 countries from six conti, ative focus groups in any study. The discussions are kept under control: The discussions in the focus groups can be kept under control. wide range of disciplines including education (Flores & Alonso, 1995). 141–159). Data was analyzed using thematic analysis and the results thereof indicated that indeed, IK can be utilized as an alternative. to the venue, and levels of distraction (Smith. Productivity susceptibility analysis (PSA) is being widely used as a semi-quantitative risk assessment tool in data and capacity limited situations. endobj Member Checking: A Tool to Enhance Trustworthiness or Merely a Nod to Validation? Understanding Focus Groups. Focus groups rely on interaction within the group based on topics that are supplied by the researcher. one-to-one interviews. Carry out a focus group study if you want to understand people’s views and experiences. Barriers and enablers that key in selecting the most suitable renewable energy sources for developing economies for the renewable energy development have been identified from extensive analyses of research documents alongside qualitative data from the focus group discussions (FGD). The topic of this video is Focus Group Discussion Methodology-II. knowledge ecosystem) and linked through high-level actions. A focus group is a form of qualitative research. Due to scarcity of literature to support the role of pedagogical belief in the actual use of ICT in classroom activities, a focused group discussion was employed to explore the participant's experiences and perspectives using the framework of UTAUT model. Focus group discussion is frequently used as a qualitative approach to gain an in-depth understanding of social issues. Sexuality Research and Social Policy: Journal of NSRC. Once the focus group discussions have been transcribed, analysis can begin. causes of deforesta, tion). Consequently, this led to the deterioration of educational standards in the subject as student tend to opt to enroll in Mathematical Literacy as Mathematics is thought of to be difficult and confined to nonindigenous students only Hence, the study aims at exploring IK as an alternative pedagogical tool to Mathematics Lecturers' classroom teaching to support their pedagogical practices in a TVET College. Furthermore, evidence suggests that mixed gender groups, of contentious debate (Krueger & Casey, 2000). This paper reviews its application in the field of ecology and conservation. A focus group discussion is a qualitative data collection method that engages 6 to 12 people—with shared characteristics pertinent to the specific discussion topic—and is led by a trained facilitator. Note … In addition to this, they are very cheap to do, easy to set up and if needed, a research group can easily increase the number of samples or the focus groups if needed for the study (Krueger 1994). ism: The role of Botswana Forest Reserves. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc. A rise in qualitative social science manuscripts published in ecology and conservation journals speaks to the growing awareness of the importance of the human dimension in maintaining and improving Earth’s ecosystems. The information gained from the FGD gives insights to the outlook and challenges that are central to energy transition within the country, alongside the perceptions of renewable energy development from the influential stakeholders contributing to the process. Parents share their views on local child care programs, and on what could be done to improve them. Of the 130 identified species, Hilsa and 74 bycatch stocks were subjected to a PSA depending on data availability and the magnitude of capture. This lesson explains what a focus group is, how focus groups are conducted, and the methodology of focus groups. analysis and (4) reporting of results (Morgan et al., 1998). Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. The next step is to identify a convenient venue for the discussion. Textbooks for conducting FGD are available, such as: Krueger, R.A. (1988) Focus Groups: A practical guide for applied research. Local communities are inextricably tied to their. In bridging research and policy, FGD can be useful in providing an insight into different opinions among different parties involved in the change process, thus enabling the process to be managed more smoothly. Member checking, also known as participant or respondent validation, is a technique for exploring the credibility of results. Nominal Group Technique (Hugé & Mukherjee, qualitative data collection approach and a, Orr, 1992). While discussion is constrained, the written format can help with reporting on the discussion. This paper is concerned with a particular type of group meeting: a focused group interview or focus group. This paper explores, in both conceptual and practical terms, three key issues: consent; confidentiality and anonymity; and risk of harm. In such, pants may not discuss their feelings and opinions freely or hesitate to. research (Wilkinson, 1998) and marketing research (Morgan, Krueger. Create a script so the moderator knows what to ask and which topics to cover 7. The data generation instrument was Focus Group Discussions (FGD), the choice of data collection instrument was done in support of, ... Focus group discussions (FGDs) are frequently used in research as a qualitative approach for attaining an in-depth understanding of an issue of interest, The aim of this project is to provide a "how to" on a range of techniques which can be used for decision making. • The focus group needs to be appropriate for the type of participants in the group. Group discussion, conducted several times until similar trends and patterns in perception, attitudes, ideas are shown. First, we reviewed all the research “questions” and “purposes”, spectives) and descriptions of the attributes (e.g. Two key features of the focus group come from the name: The research is focused, and the format is a group. We begin by identifying knowledge sources (stakeholder values, forecasts of invader spread and impacts, management technologies and operational logistics) to guide the high-level actions (governance framework design, selection of ethical management technologies, definition of long-term objectives, design of management strategies and operational plans implementing strategies) required for management of chronic invasions. Using scenario planning for stakeholder engagement in livelihood futures in the Great Limpopo Transf... Urban Early Adolescent Narratives on Sexuality: Accidental and Intentional Influences of Family, Pee... Electronic focus groups: A framework for exploration, Inquiry based Online Contents Development for Elementary Science Class. Focus group discussions (FGDs) are part of most experiences of participatory research and action, and perhaps the most commonly used method in the participatory toolkit. 4. x��ZYw��~�9���c�`��u�n7��<8}�)X�-� A focus group is a small, but demographically similar group of people and whose reactions are studied especially in market research or political analysis in guided or open discussions about a new product or something else to determine the reactions that can be expected from a larger population. A focus group discussion (or FGD) is a qualitative research method in the social sciences, with a particular emphasis and application in the developmental program evaluation sphere. Dos and don’ts of a positive focus group experience 5. This paper examines the scope and purpose of eighteen subfields of classic, interdisciplinary and applied conservation social sciences and articulates ten distinct contributions that the social sciences can make to understanding and improving conservation. The UTAUT model is a theoretical framework that elucidates the conditions under which teachers are most likely to accept and use information and communication technologies (ICT) in the classroom. The. Involves two moderators working together, This involves two moderators who purposefully take opposing sides. This methodology brief outlines a five-stage process for conducting focus groups and reporting on the results. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. A focus group is a method of preliminary qualitative research that works by selecting a group of eight to twelve people, placing them in an interactive group setting, and probing them on their perceptions, opinions, beliefs and attitudes on a specific topic. Focus group discussion requires a team consisting of a skilled facilita, ment for unfamiliar participants. Next, we propose a transdisciplinary knowledge ecology framework where each knowledge source is represented by a separate knowledge generation and curation platform (i.e. Data or results are returned to participants to check for accuracy and resonance with their experiences. The dynamics of the focus group can have a hugely positive influence on the quality of the research output. evidenced by this review. %���� I argue that the best and most productive form of research design that could adequately respond to the social problems is the Participatory Action Research (PAR), lensed through Transformative Paradigm (TP). Once all the data are analysed, the researcher needs to consolidate the, outlined by Sandelowski (1993), Morse (1994) and Angen, as one group in one place. relationships between and among categories (Miles & Huberman, documenting the value of indigenous knowledge s, We identified 170 papers (henceforth studies with references, negotiation and evaluation of research problems and findings between. In this commentary, we critique how member checking has been used in published research, before describing and evaluating an innovative in-depth member checking technique, Synthesized Member Checking. FGDs can be used to explore the meanings of survey findings that cannot be explained statistically, the range of opinions/views on a topic of interest and to collect a wide variety of local terms. The aim is to obtain knowledge of the participant's considerations and ideas on a specific topic. Here, we reviewed the applications of focus group discussion within biodiversity and conservation research between 1996 and April 2017. C, Formations of class & gender: Becoming respectable, Interviewing in market and social research. It is used to learn more about opinions on a designated topic, and then to guide future action. Conducting focus groups 7. It is performed by planned discussion and interview with a small group of people conducted by a moderator. A great deal of the skepticism about the value of focus groups probably arises from the We detail the structure and function of a single knowledge ecosystem (forecasting spread and impacts), and document two case studies to illustrate how knowledge ecosystems might (a) increase participation of individual researchers within long-term research efforts, and (b) facilitate inclusion of non-researchers in developing a common knowledge base. A focus group usually consists of 5-12 individuals who all possess certain characteristics pertaining to the topic of the group. This study concluded that inquiry based online contents should be designed considering students interests based on learning subjects and also developed in terms of students interests and strong motivation as well. D. A. Following are the main advantages of focus group discussion in research: It is an inexpensive and fast method of acquiring valuable data. This paper uses the definition of focus group as a controlled group discussion, on the basis that the group interaction generated through discussion is of prior importance to this methodology. nique is not a rigorous method for data collection. They address the three main components of composition, conduct and analysis in focus group research and also acknowledge the increasing impact the Internet has had on social research by covering the role and conduct of `virtual focus groups'. In N. K. Denzin, & Y. S. Lincoln. The five stages are: Study Purpose Methodology Conceptualization Logistics Facilitation Preparation Pre-Session Session Analysis Reporting Using this five-stage process as a guide will contribute to the completion of an ing in ecology and conservation journals. Focus Group Discussion (FGD) is a method of data collection which is frequently used to collect in-depth qualitative data in various descriptive studies such as case studies, phenomenological and naturalistic studies). Focus Group Discussions . We begin with a brief explanation of the technique for first-time users. The term described meetings held with a limited group of participants with the objective of discussion. This review and supporting materials provides a succinct yet comprehensive reference for conservation scientists and practitioners. 1. Examples: A focus group of parents of preschoolers meets to discuss child care needs. A focus group discussion is a group discussion of 6-12 persons guided by a Important note: If you’re hoping to do serious journal-worthy qualitative analysis, this post might not be for you. need to generate discussion or debate about a research topic that, Padmavathy, 2013; Mfune, 2013; Wibeck, 2011). The Focus Group (FG) has been actually employed by marketing, and is becoming importanct also in other areas; such as, education, health, management, decision-making, and information systems, among others. Focus group discussion can be utilised within a suite of techniques in a multi‐method research design, as a principal research method in its own right, or as a form of participatory action research to empower participants and promote social change (Wilkinson, 1998, 1999). endobj Rarely have the studies provided any information on the rationale for choosing the technique. Focus groups data collection method is most suitable for types of studies where multiple perspectives needed to be obtained regarding the same problem. The studies explored the use of metaphors and mental, excluded. hunting, agriculture, natural resource, legal and illegal natural resources users. Most of the studies were in Africa (n = 76), followed by Asia (n = 44), and Europe (n = 30). In this type of focus group discussion, researchers recruit some of, is thought to impact on the dynamics of the group by influencing par, ticipants’ answers, thereby increasing the chances of varied and more, Under these circumstances, researchers, adaptation of traditional methods. The nominal group technique (NGT) is a qualitative method to elicit judgement from stakeholders. A clear rationale. Get a verified writer to help you with Focus group discussion. We contend that the social sciences can help facilitate conservation policies, actions and outcomes that are more legitimate, salient, robust and effective. We reviewed and summarized elements of quality that could be used by reviewers and readers to evaluate qualitative research (dependability, credibility, confirmability, and transferability); assessed the prevalence of these elements in research published in ecology and conservation journals; and explored the implications of sound qualitative research reporting for applying research findings. Our finding revealed 82 % accordance level between the exploitation rate and PSA-derived vulnerability scores. Focus groups, or group interviews, is a technique used by socio thinks (or by observing their interactions) often, group to different conclusions than those. The group members are allowed to discuss with one another to reach a common answer. 5. Focus group discussion is a research methodology in which a small group of participants gather to discuss a specified topic or an issue to generate data. The second documents a stakeholder engagement process (iterative focus groups, ... We applied an iterative focus groups approach. type of data: 'Focus groups explicitly use group interaction as part of the method' (Kitzinger 1995: 299). Based upon the research objectives, biodiversity, conservation, decision making, f, and synergistic relationships among participants to, McColl, Hale, & Bond, 1995). (1998). Most of the studies, common theme related to the understanding of people’s perspectives, pretation and legitimisation of biodiversity, provided insights into their perceptions on climate and environmental, production systems such as oil sands production, ecotourism and for, tion of nature.
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